Stalin's second five year plan, adopted in 1932, shifted the production priority to heavy industries. His prediction was for the USSR to become one of the major steel-producing countries in the world. During this time the improvement of industry forewent citizens' standards of living. Systems of communication and transportation were improved, while a system of incentives as well as punishments for workers was implemented. 'Planners' preferences replaced consumer preferences, the economy suffered, political persecution endured.