Marginilization of citizens by economic, top-down planning and government power structures will lead to social unrest.



Residents of the Paris banlieues :
In 2005, violent riots erupted in several banlieues (outskirts) neighborhoods in France. Triggered by the deaths of two French youth as they fled the police, the riots were fueled by a collective sense of fury towards the power structures which reinforced the inequality of the lives of residents in these neighborhoods, versus the middle and upper class living in the center of Paris. Primarily low-income or unemployed, immigrant or of foreign descent, the banlieue residents were isolated in many dimensions.
The high-rise housing of these districts, which is the legacy of Modernist design and the ideas of architect Le Corbusier, was criticized as the cause of the riots, the reason for the and alienation of the residents.

As architectural historian Wouter Vanstiphout points out, the architecture itself is the physical embodiment of larger top-down imposition of government and planning. These power structures, disconnected from the residents themselves, can perpetuate inequality and alienation and sometimes lead to an outburst from the citizens who feel victimized, as it did Detroit in the 1960-70s, Los Angeles in the 1990s, and Paris and London in the early 2000s.


Wouter Vanstiphout, "Damn the Master's Plan." Strelka Institute, 15 Mar 2013. http://www.strelka.com/content/strelka-talks-vanstiphout/?lang=en


http://riotsfrance.ssrc.org/